Sunday, May 27, 2018


Frequently asked Questions (FAQs) on Cash Transfer Programmes

These are regular non-contributory payments of money (cash transfer) provided by government based on pre-set criteria for specified population categories.
• They enable poor people meet their basic consumption needs (buy food, provide health, shelter), and decrease chronic or shock-induced poverty, address social risks and reduce economic vulnerability.• They help individuals improve their livelihood opportunities, take precaution in case of hard/shocks, make investments in productive activities and assets as well as save or use the transfer to access additional credit These are regular non-contributory payments of money (cash transfer) provided by government based on pre-set criteria for specified population categories.What are the objectives of the cash transfer programme?•    They enable poor people meet their basic consumption needs (buy food, provide health, shelter), and decrease chronic or shock-induced poverty, address social risks and reduce economic vulnerability.•    They help individuals improve their livelihood opportunities, take precaution in case of hard/shocks, make investments in productive activities and assets as well as save or use the transfer to access additional credit
The Department of Social Development offers two types of cash transfer as shown below:The Older Persons Cash Transfer (OPCT)The programme started in 2005•    To cushion older people and their households from income threatening risks such as sickness, poor health, and injuries.•    To break the intergenerational poverty by providing younger household members with the opportunity to go school or go to work.The Person with Severe Disability Cash transfer Programme (PWSD-CT)The programme was started in 2010•    To contribute to poverty reduction in households containing at least one member with a severe disability through provision of a regular, predictable cash transfer•    To improve the lives of people with a severe disability.•    To empower caregivers and improve the livelihood opportunities of household members.
The Older Persons Cash Transfer (OPCT)•    The programme covers households with vulnerable older persons who have attained the age of 65 and aboveThe Person with Severe Disability Cash transfer Programme (PWSD-CT)•    The programme covers households with a person with severe disability.In addition•    All benefitting households must be categorized as poor and vulnerable,•    They are not enrolled in any other cash transfer programme,•    A member of the household is not receiving any pension/or regular income and,•    They are not in any gainful employment.
•    Identification of beneficiaries into the programme is guided by the eligibility criteria under each programme.•    Using these criteria, eligible beneficiary households are identified through the location barazas where all community members in the location are present to validate that they are genuine.•    Once the household lists are validated and endorsed at the community baraza, targeting is done through a questionnaire that collects data on the livelihood status.•    The information is then captured in the programme Management Information Systems (MIS), through which a weighting process is done, and beneficiaries are ranked according to a poverty score card.•    Given the available resources, beneficiaries are enrolled into the programme while others are kept in the waiting list.
•    It is likely that individuals would feel like they meet the criteria for enrolment, and yet they feel left out. The programme provides a mechanism in which individuals are able to lodge complaints in the respective county and sub county offices.•    Once complaints are raised, the same are recorded and the individual’s details are collected for consideration along with the rest, and if they do not qualify, they are provided with reasons as to why for the moment they do not make the list of potential beneficiaries.
•    A person with severe disability is identified as one who needs permanent care including feeding, toiletry, protection from danger from themselves and from other persons and the environment and thus, require intensive support on a daily basis
•    All the programmes are NOT UNIVERSAL, but are targeted to only reach those who are extremely poor and vulnerable in every constituency.
•    Enrolment of the beneficiaries is determined by levels of poverty and vulnerability as provided by the Kenya Bureau of Statistics.•    Annually, once the government has allocated resources to the programme, at the national level  scale up plan is agreed upon, and this is further shared to officers at county and sub county levels for implementation•    The scale up plan is what is presented to the Sub county /constituency level committees for rationalization and application on the ground in terms of determining locations with higher poverty indexes where the programme should target at that level•    Once this is decided, data is collected from households listed as meeting the eligibility criteria
•    The Cash transfer programme is funded by the Government of Kenya, with additional support from Social Partners.
•    The programme involves a very participatory process in the identification of beneficiaries. Communities are sensitized about the programme enrollment criteria, once the process of targeting starts.•    After the sensitization they form location committees at location barazas to facilitate the process of listing ALL households (HH) within their location that they identify as fitting the criteria of eligibility.•    After the household listing process is completed, then supported by the officers and location committees, the communities through location barazas validate the list produced by confirming that HH identified are genuine and deserving to be in the programme.•    Along with representative of the location committees, and recruited enumerators, Social Development officers then undertake household data collection using targeting tool that helps rank HH based on poverty and vulnerability.
•    The programme makes provisions for the participation of leaders through the implementation committees at the various levels•    For instance at constituency level, elected leaders, and other stakeholders at that level are expected to be members•    The role of leaders in the committees is mainly to provide direction and oversight.
•    Currently all the Cash Transfer programs pay a stipend of KES 2,000 per house per month, this stipend has risen from KES 500 when the cash transfers were introduced in the country.•    This amount is determined through the National level Committees who are guided by periodic reviews undertaken under the  Social Protection Secretariat that consider the overall economic conditions in the country.
•    This money is currently paid in cash every two months thorough KCB.•    In instances where we have delayed payments, a cumulative amount to cover the months delayed is paid•    Payments are however withheld for beneficiaries who do not pick their stipend for three consecutive cycles (six months) until verifications are undertaken.
•    Beneficiaries may exit from the programme voluntarily if they determine that their economic condition has improved and in many instances when evidence exists that a household has given false information to benefit from the programme. They are also exited upon death.
•    It is likely that indeed individuals who may not be eligible to join the program have previously got into the programme. It is encouraged that once such a case is known, the same is reported from the sub county to National levels for verification and action towards exiting such individuals is taken.
•    It is considered a criminal offence for any financial or other demands to be made on beneficiaries by officials, i.e. social development officers, chiefs, or their assistants, village elders or community representatives either for a beneficiary to be enrolled into the programme or to receive their stipend from the payment service provider at any time when in the programme.•    Such instances will lead to due actions as provided for in the law, and beneficiaries are encouraged to report these instances incidences at all the times.•    Foremost, it is important to note that the cash transfer is a RIGHT and NOT A FAVOUR.

The Department of Social Development, under the Social Assistance Division, implements two cash transfer programmes:

1.    Older Persons Cash Transfer (OPCT)
The Older Persons Cash Transfer (OPCT) programme was started in 2007. It is funded by the Government of Kenya. The programme focuses on providing cash transfer to poor households who have at least one member above the age of 65 years. In the Financial Year 2015/2016, the total number of beneficiaries was 325,000

2.    Persons with Severe Disability cash Transfer (PwSD-CT)
The Persons with Severe Disabilities cash transfer (PWSD-CT) programme is a fully funded Government of Kenya project, launched in June 2011. The programme targets persons with severe disabilities including adults and children who depend on full time support of a caregiver.
In the context of this programe, persons with severe disabilities refer to those who require permanent care including feeding, toiletry, and protection from danger from themselves, other persons or the environment. They also need intensive support on a daily basis which therefore keeps their parents, guardians or caregivers at home or close to them throughout.

In the Financial Year 2015/2016, the total number of beneficiaries was 47,200

Programmes’ Objectives
The cash transfer programmes aim to support overall poverty reduction of the programmes’ identified vulnerable populations: Older people and Persons with Severe Disability. The cash transfers aim to protect households from adverse shocks and promote key investments in human capital and physical asset, improving household health, improving household access to education, reducing exclusion, and strengthening household resilience.

  Primary Eligibility Criteria   Secondary Eligibility Criteria
OPCT Household is categorized as extremely poor and vulnerable and has a member over 65 years of age


  • Beneficiary (or caregiver for PWSD-CT) requires a national ID at the time of enrollment.
  • Household is earning less than Ksh. 2,000 (for an urban area) or less than Ksh. 1,500 (for rural area)
  • No member of the household is enrolled in any other cash transfer programme
  • No member of the household is receiving a regular pension
  • Beneficiary has resided in a location for more than a year
  • Beneficiary must be a Kenyan citizen
PWSD-CT Household is categorized as extremely poor and vulnerable and has a member with a severe disability.

All the programmes are spread out in the 47 Counties and their Constituencies.


Kenya is a country of young people with a population of approximately 43 million, with 51% of the population being children. It is estimated that in Kenya there are 2.19 million orphans, and a segment of this group are in need of special care and protection. Orphans and vulnerable children are 10 million. HIV/AIDS prevalence is 7% in the country. Widespread poverty in the country (which is at 46 % of the population) subjects most Kenyans, especially orphans and vulnerable children to serious deprivation of basic necessities of life. Poverty, compounded by the upsurge of HIV/AIDS and the weakening community structures has exposed children into vulnerability that is manifested in food shortage, lack of shelter, lack of medical care, high school drop-out, malnutrition, high mortality rate; and this has worsened the living conditions of this segment of our society.

In response to this, the Government of Kenya with support from the Development Partners launched a Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CT-OVC) Programme in 2004 with the aim of supporting households living with and taking care of orphans and vulnerable children. The initial pilot programme operated in three (3) counties (Kwale, Garissa and Nairobi) supporting 500 poor households caring for orphans and vulnerable children (OVCs). Results from this pilot were positive and since then the programme has expanded to supports approximately 260,000 households in all 47 Counties (the 290 Constituencies, and in 2,671 Locations in Kenya).

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This is the section of the Department of Children’s Services which coordinates all field offices, child protection activities, emergencies, child help line and all the stakeholders working with the department among other programmes.


To safeguard the rights and welfare of all children through coordination of care and protection for children in Kenya



Child Participation is a process that provides an opportunity for children to be involved in decision making on matters that affect their lives and to express their views in accordance with their evolving capacities. Child participation recognizes that children are not a passive, powerless target group, but rather capable communicators, who can effectively engage in activities within their communities.


The Children Assembly seeks to realize Children’s right to participation; the right to Participation being one of the four pillars of the rights of children. Participation ensures that views and ideas of children are considered in all matters that affect them in society. The UN convention on the rights of the child (UNCRC) as well as the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (ACRWC), both stipulate that children have the right to form and air their views, right to expression, right to thought, conscience and religion; right to association amongst others.

Establishment of the Assemblies

The National Children Assembly was launched at the Multimedia University on 24th April 2012. The occasion which was officiated by the then deputy speaker of the National Assembly Hon. Farah Maalim, also marked the official establishment of the Kenya children Assembly countrywide. During the session, the first national officials were elected to sit for two years as stipulated by the Children Assembly operational guidelines.

The Children assemblies were established at the 47 counties in the year 2011. At the county level County Children Assemblies are held during school under the leadership of Children County coordinators and Sub County Children officers. Sub counties participate and it is from these forums that delegates are elected to represent their counties at the National level.

The Kenya Constitution 2010, Article 53, in tandem with international children’s instruments, establishes internationally acclaimed principles on the rights of children, such as the best interests of the child being paramount in every matter concerning children. This therefore gives opportunity for children to express themselves in line with their evolving capacities.

The Children Act 2001 has domesticated the regional and international conventions on the rights and welfare of the child. It stipulates that the children have the right to form and air their views, right to expression, right to thought, conscience and religion; right to association amongst others.

The Concept of Children Assemblies is operationalized through policy guidelines which include the Child participation guidelines, the operational guidelines and standing orders for Children Assemblies which have been disseminated to all counties. There is an electoral code which guides the children during elections.

The Ministry of Labour has made budgetary allocation for the current Assembly exercise in all the counties. The field section monitors the implementation of the recommendations and activities of the Children Assembly.


  1. Attached is the operational guideline for operationalisation of Children Assemblies in Kenya
  2. Video for the 2015 Kenya Children Assembly
  3. Photos for the 2014 Kenya Children Assembly


The Trafficking in Persons Protocol specifies that:

“Trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.

Kenya has been described as a country of source, transit and destination in human trafficking.

¢  Origin: Kenyans are trafficked to other African countries such as South Africa, Rwanda, and Uganda, to European countries such as Germany, Italy, Ireland, UK and the Netherlands for the purposes of domestic labour and sexual exploitation, and to Middle East and North American countries for domestic work, forced labour, and commercial sexual exploitation.

¢  Transit: identified victims include Ethiopian, Somalis, Indian nationals trafficked through Kenya en route to South Africa and the Middle East.

¢  Destination: citizens of other African and Asian countries have been identified as victims of trafficking in Kenya.

¢  Victims of trafficking are overworked, suffer physical and sexual abuse, non-payment or under-payment of wages, poor working conditions, and restricted or no access to education.

The Department still continues to address cases of child trafficking which forms the fourth main category of cases reported through the Child Help Line 116. The Government has strength with the enactment of Counter trafficking Act, 2010. The Act creates structures which if in place will identify areas of response, mitigation and prevention.



The Counter Trafficking In Person’s Advisory Committee

The Government has made some efforts on implementation of the Counter-Trafficking in Person’s Act 2010. The Counter Trafficking In Person’s Advisory Committee which is established under section 19 of the Counter-Trafficking in persons Act 2010 was launched on 8th July, 2014 by the Minister of Labour, Social Security and Services and is now operational. Members of the committee are nominated from Government Organizations and civil societies. Three members appointed from the Civil Society were gazetted through the Gazette Notice No. 3385.

The main function of the Advisory Committee is to advise the Minister on inter-agency activities aimed at combating trafficking in Persons. The Advisory Committee is also mandated to enhance the implementation of preventive, protective and rehabilitative programmes for trafficked persons among other functions. This demonstrated urgent need to allocate funds to facilitate the Advisory Committee to carry out its mandate. If fully operational the Advisory committee then will ensure the establishment of the other structures identified in Section 22 of the Counter-trafficking in Person’s Act like Victim Assistance Fund for victims of Trafficking in Persons which shall be administered by a Board of Trustees.

Since the Launch, committee members have undergone training and held sessions to revise the National Plan of Action (NPA) for combating human trafficking and proposed amendments to the Counter Trafficking in Persons Act, 2010. Priority areas earmarked and of extreme urgency given the recent ranking include costing, printing launching and dissemination of the NPA.

National Plan of Action for Combating Human Trafficking 2013-2017

The Advisory Committee spearheaded the development of the National Plan of Action (NPA) for Combating Human Trafficking 2013-2017. The NPA offers a coherent, ambitious but realizable road map to address the problems of human trafficking in Kenya.

Through the Counter Trafficking in Persons Advisory Committee, the Ministry will implement this plan of action, monitor and assess the national and international situation in regard to human trafficking and its effects. The purpose of the Action Plan is to promote co-operation between different stakeholders from all sectors in Kenya and lay the groundwork for closer co-operation with other countries in the region and beyond.

The NPA identifies areas of response, mitigation and prevention. The objectives and activities outlined in the NPA, are articulated around (3Ps): Prevention, Protection and Prosecution. To actualize the objectives and activities outlined in this NPA, which are articulated around the (3Ps),the Ministry will endevour to constructively engage all the key stakeholders in partnership.This National Plan of Action (NPA) to counter human trafficking 2013 - 2017 is in tandem with Kenya’s blue print for development, Vision 2030. The NPA is aligned to the Ministerial Strategic Plan 2013-2017.

By implementing this plan of action, the Ministry will be spearheding a key activity in the achievement of the Social Pillar whose goal is ‘A Just and Cohesive Society in a Clean and Secure Environment’. The NPA will also contribute positively to the endeavours of the other pillars.


NPA Highlights (the 3Ps)

1. Prevention:

¢  Strategic objective: - Prevention of trafficking in persons in the country.

¢  Activities:-

ü  Capacity Building-Training activities already under way e.g. of prosecutors, immigration and police.

ü  Raise public awareness

ü  Reducing fraudulent employment opportunities  by Monitoring and assessing employment agencies, and their processes and practices to detect misconduct or potential gaps that could be used by traffickers

2. Protection:

¢  Strategic objective: - Protection for Victims enhanced

¢  Activities:-

ü  Develop, print and disseminate national guidelines for identification of victims.

ü  Various activities to promote direct assistance to victims. Setting up the trust fund for victims is ongoing

3. Prosecution:

¢  Strategic objective: - Prosecution of trafficking in Person’s offender/ perpetrator.

¢  Activities:

ü  Develop Regulations to the Act

ü  Amendments to the Act -ongoing.

ü  Cross cutting Issuesidentified (e.g. data and research, monitoring and evaluation).

Note: Attached is the NPA for combating human trafficking 2013-2017 strategic framework

Kenyan Ranking In Trafficking In Persons (TIP)

According to the 2014/2015 U.S Government TIP report Kenya was ranked Tier 2.

Tier 2

¢  Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the TVPA’s minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards.

¢  The most desirable ranking for Kenya is Tier 1.

Tier 1

¢  Countries whose governments fully comply with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s (TVPA) minimum standards.

The Tier 2 Watch List:

¢  Countries whose governments do not fully comply with the Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s (TVPA’s) minimum standards, but are making significant efforts to bring themselves into compliance with those standards AND:

¢  The absolute number of victims of severe forms of trafficking is very significant or is significantly increasing;

¢  There is a failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking in persons from the previous year; or

¢  The determination that a country is making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with minimum standards was based on commitments by the country to take additional future steps over the next year

Significant efforts by Kenya

  1. Implementation of the Counter-trafficking in Persons Act, 2010.
  2. Launch of the Counter trafficking in persons Advisory committee on 8th July, 2014 and is operational
  3. Launch of the National Plan of Action to Combat Human Trafficking.
  4. Reported cases of prosecution of trafficking cases.
  5. Conviction of traffickers
  6. Revocation of all accredited certificates issued to private employment recruitment agencies to better regulate overseas labour recruitment.

Recommendations for Kenya

  1. Continue using the Counter-Trafficking in Person’s Act of 2010 to investigate and prosecute trafficking offenses.
  2. Convict and punish trafficking offenders, including government officials suspected of complicity in human trafficking.
  3. Continue using anti-trafficking law or section 14 of the Sexual Offenses Act to prosecute and punish child sex tourists.
  4. Provide additional training at all levels of government, particularly first-line responders, on identifying and handling trafficking crimes.
  5. Allocate adequate resources to Police, Labour and Social Services staff to ensure implementation of the prosecution and protection mandates within the Counter-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2010.
  6. Implement a formal process for law enforcement officials to refer trafficking victims for assistance.
  7. Continue to increase oversight of and accountability for overseas recruitment agencies.
  8. Increase protective services available to adult trafficking victims, particularly those identified in and returned from the Middle East.
  9. Establish board of trustees to oversee the National Assistance Trust Fund for Victims of trafficking and allocate money to endow this fund.
  10. Allocate resources to the Victim assistance fund mandated by the Victim Protection Act.
  11. Develop a unified system to collect and analyze trafficking case data by all stakeholders.

Progress on the setting up of the board of trustee for the national trust fund

The above mentioned Trust Fund is established under section 22 (1) of the Counter–Trafficking in Persons Act, 2010 and shall be used for the assistance of victims of trafficking in persons. According to section 24 (1) of the Act, the Fund shall be administered by a Board of Trustees. The Ministry is in the process of setting up the Board of trustee. Nominated members have been gazetted. The fund will be used to assist victims of trafficking. The Board shall develop the regulations for running the fund.




Volunteer Children’s Officers (VCOs) complement work done by the Children Officers but they remain citizens who work voluntarily for the realization of the best interest and rights of the child. The Department of Children’s Services co-ordinates the VCOs who are recruited in their respective areas.

A Volunteer Children’s Officer is a citizen who offers his/her time, skills and resources for the realization of the best interest and rights of children, under the guidance of Children Officer without remuneration.

VCOs are appointed by the Director of Department of Children’s Services upon recommendation of Area Advisory Councils (AAC) who are legally constituted under sec.32 (q) of Children Act 2001.

Core Function of VCO

  1. To ensure the rights of children in the community are protected.
  2. To provide guidance to children in need of care and protection at community level.
  3. To rehabilitate and reintegrate child offenders into the community.
  4. To promote networking and collaboration in provision of services by partners/stakeholders in the children sector.
  5. Secretary to locational AAC.

NOTE: attached is the VCO Handbook




Violence against children (VAC) has been identified as a critical inhibitor of growth, development and progress in Kenya, tolerated because of ingrained social norms and a lack of cultural awareness about the harm it can cause not only to public health but also to the moral fabric of a nation. Violence against children has social, economic, rights and public health consequences for both individuals and societies. Violence against and the exploitation of children include all forms of physical or psychological abuse, injury, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment, including sexual abuse.

A national study was conducted by the Government of Kenya in 2010 on the magnitude and pattern of violence against children. The study was responding to the recommendations of United Nations Study on Violence Against Children to improve data collection and research efforts to inform policy & programming at all levels and track progress towards the goal of preventing VAC. The study revealed that 75% of Kenyan girls and boys are violated sexually, physically and emotionally before they attain age 18.

In 2014, a follow up study was conducted by the government of Kenya to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (response) to VAC by adult caregivers. This follow up study validated the 2010 study findings on VAC.Both studies found out that the main perpetrators of VAC are parents, relatives, neighbours and authority figures who include police officers and teachers who were to be targeted in the response plan. The Government of Kenya took time to release the findings of the study until a response plan was developed.

The Response plan has six thematic areas that are intertwined namely: Legislative and policy issues, Availability of Quality services and Coordination of child protection sector, Circumstances in which violence occurs, Advocacy and communication, Information Management and Capacity Building. In the Response plan, the fourth pillar, Advocacy and Communication therefore became a critical pillar in addressing VAC. The Department of Children’s Services is currently undertaking communication activities under the communication pillar of the Violence Against Children (VAC) response plan.


  1. Attached is the VAC Study Report Findings 2010 And Response Plan.
  2. Knowledge Attitude and Practice baseline survey on child protection issues June2011
  3. Enthnographic study on community child protection mechanisms in Mombasa
  4. County Child Protection Guidelines


The programme brings together 5 Juvenile Justice Agencies (JJAs) for Capacity building. It started as a GOK-JICA 4 Year Capacity Building Programme in Kenya from 2009-2013. After the end of JICA involvement in the progrmme, the five government agencies took the initiative in the 2014-2015 financial year to support the training of their officers and the 3rd group was trained in the period. The Programme aims at building capacity of officers working in the Juvenile Justice Agencies (JJA) namely Judiciary, Prisons, and Probation, Police and Children’s services. The objective of the Programme is to improve the quality of service provided by these Juvenile Justice Agencies. The Programme targets officers who deal with both children in need of Care and Protection as well as those in Conflict with the law. One of the most difficult challenges of the implementation of the programme has been insufficient funding.


It is important to note that out of the population of Kenya of 40 million 52% are children under the age of 18. This populace faces various forms of abuse and exploitation. Efforts to address the plight of this segment of population should be Multi-sectoral hence the relevance of the CCPOs training.

CCPOs: Child Care and Protection Officers in Juvenile Justice System.

Project aims at improving child protection within the Kenyan Juvenile Justice System through:

  1. addressing existing knowledge capacity gaps within the Five Juvenile Justice Agencies.(JJAs)
  2. Enhancing the collaboration and networking among the five JJAs.
  3. Establishing a standard and comprehensive training system for all JJAs.
  1. Empowering CCPOs with relevant skills and knowledge in Juvenile Justice Process, administration and management.

Genesis of CCPO Project

  • Training Needs Assessment was carried out
  • Capacity Target (Knowledge, skills, and attitude) was formulated
  • 5 Thematic areas for the training were identified
  • 3 Training modules were compiled with units from 5 thematic areas, based on the level of contents of Unit

Five (5) Thematic Areas

  1. Juvenile Justice Procedure
  2. Case Management
  3. Rehabilitation/Treatment
  4. Support networking
  5. Ethics, responsibility and quality assurance

CCPO Training Materials

  • CCPO Training Curriculum
  • MODULE I – Procedures in Juvenile Justice System
  • MODULE II- Skills in Case Management in Juvenile Justice System
  • MODULE III- Treatment issues & CCPOs Quality Service Delivery
  • CCPO Training Management Manual.

Curriculum Objectives

  • To explore the juvenile justice procedure in Kenya.
  • To describe case management
  • Demonstrate treatment and rehabilitation of both children in conflict with the law and those in need of care and protection.
  • Discuss support network in the Kenyan Juvenile Justice System
  • Describe ethical and responsible behaviour among the CCPO

Modality of Implementation

  • The CCPO training course has two components: a theoretical and a practical input.
  • The theoretical input is provided in three modules. Participants are expected to attend a two weeks residential training for each module.
  • The CCPO trainees are expected to prepare an individual work plan and a group work plan during the two weeks residential training both of which will be implemented at the place of work with constant supervision of the trainers (supervisors).
  • Practicum is conducted after every residential training Individual & Group Work plan Based on knowledge &skills from Training for three months

CCPO Training Cycle




Child help line is a phone service that links children in need of care and protection to essential services and resources. The concept of child help line was mooted way back in 1998 with increasing cases of child abuse. The Department in partnership with other societies set up a crisis desk where, members of the public could call the number (228844) and report the worst forms of child abuse. The caller used to bear the cost of calling hence limiting accessibility to the service. In 2006 the first toll free line (0800-221-00800) was introduced being run by child line Kenya. The service faced challenges as it was only accessible via only one telecommunication company (Telkom Kenya)

The Department of Children’s Services in collaboration with Child line Kenya used these experiences and lobbied for an all-inclusive service hence the birth of 116 which became operational in March, 2008. Child help line 116 situated at Kabete in Nairobi was launched on 31st May, 2008 and has been operating in partnership between the Government through the Department of Children services and Child Line Kenya. It draws its success from cooperation and support of partners. It begun with voice only but has expanded to include SMS and chats.

116 is a service of the Department of Children’s Service with Childline Kenya providing technical support. There two satellite centres in Eldoret and Garissa but Kabete provides oversight and training All cases reported terminated at Kabete then through fiber connectivity rerouted to Eldoret at the moment.

The child help line was established to offer the following services:

  • Provide 24 hour toll free emergency public line for reporting all cases for children in need of care & protection.
  • Keep a National database on calls made on issues raised by children.
  • Provide counseling and referral services for all children in danger and distress.
  • Acts as a referral source for therapeutic of abused children.
  • Works together with stakeholders in children sector to advocate for children’s rights and protection.
  • Provide a plat form for networking amongst stakeholders/ and provide linkages to support systems that facilitate the rehabilitation of abused children.
  • To advise, counsel and assist parents experiencing difficulties with their children.

Children call the help line with different issues requiring different interventions. Some of the cases reported include child neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, school related, custody and maintenance, FGM, early/forced marriages, child labor, child prostitution, child trafficking among others. The helpline can only receive and direct the child to services available where they are.

The calls are classified into the following broad categories: Abuse, education & career, Family and community, General information, Health/basic needs and Non- intervention. The Department of Children Services is committed to protecting and promoting the rights and welfare of the child. Its roles are as follows:

  • The custodian of 116.
  • Acts as a link between various Government departments and coordinates emergency responses.
  • Define criteria and standards for services for all children.
  • Use data generated from the Helpline to influence policy formulation in the best interest of the child.
  • Provides premises as well as budgetary support for the operation of 116.
  • Provide necessary personnel to the Helpline.
  • Investigate cases, undertake rescue missions for children in distress.
  • Assist children access justice or any other service they may need.
  • Mobilize resources and undertake publicity and awareness creation on the service.

The Government single handedly cannot handle/ respond to all children issues due to the enormous increase in number if issues affecting children hence, the keenness in building partnership with well-meaning organizations working for children in Kenya.

Success stories

l  Establishment of safe house for children rescued from abusive situation( Physical and sexual abuse)The safe opened its doors to children in December 2012 to cater specially for sexually and physically abused children

l  Increased awareness and trust (policing calling to inquire on children matters)

l  Conviction of some of the perpetrators

l  Piloting of parenting programme as a way of preventing child abuse

Emerging trends

l  Rising levels of truancy and drug abuse especially among children from dysfunctional families

l  Sexual abuse by pre-primary teachers

l  Early marriage whereby children are taking themselves to be married without being forced especially in communities practicing FGM


l  Prank and Silent calls

l  Cost of running Service

l  Network Challenges (i.e. fiber cuts)

l  Abuse within the family and deliberate cover-up

l  Finding the right support for the children in areas where there are no partners (especially legal services)

l  Cases dragging in the justice system leading to witnesses getting weary

l  Casual way of handling investigations in cases of abused children

l  Limited resources among the government agencies who should be the first respondents

l  Misunderstanding of the working of the helpline




A Child Protection Centre (CPC) is a community resource centre placed within the community to serve as a hub of information and services primarily for children and the whole community. It is a place where vulnerable children can be protected from abuse, violence, neglect and exploitation and where needs are identified, assessed and addressed and referrals for rehabilitation, counselling and vocational training can be made and where, when abuse, neglect or exploitation is reported, essential services can be offered in a child friendly space.

Objective of CPCs

Child Protection Centres are a key component within the wider child protection system for Kenya. At present, systematic protective services responding to violence, abuse, exploitation and family separation of children are not available in Kenya.The centres will allow for greater access to local children and more reliable information on Child Protection concerns on the ground. CPCs will seek to work in coordination with various ministries in the government and civil societies but with the over-arching emphasis being on family and community-based care and support.

The Centres will operate as part of the government’s protective services for vulnerable children in Kenya and in order to be able to do this, CPCs will work together with various local NGOs and other agencies. The multi-agency approach in the development of a child protection system will ensure that the key agencies, with their specific roles to safeguard and promote the welfare of children will work directly with CPCs in doing so.Through CPCs the government can ensure that a functioning Child Protection System will be able to reach the community through (Schools, VCOs, AACs); and therefore will be able to develop a comprehensive communication strategy to promote protective environments for children.

The objective of CPCs is to work with and facilitate the needs of the children within its community. The Centres will provide an insight into the trends and available services for children and families, but will also through data collection and monitoring allow for the development of specific protective and preventative services where needed. CPCs will operate on the principal of non-discrimination, child participation and for the best interests of the child.


Child Protection Centres (CPCs) shall provide service hubs in the most disadvantaged areas where children and families and the community can receive seamless, integrated family services and information. By offering services within the community CPCs can ensure that children get access to immediate support, guidance, monitoring and a chance to improve their lives in order to reach their full potential.

Services may vary according to the location of the centre and the provision of services may include the following:

  • Assessment and reintegration of separated children to their families.
  • Support for parents, including counseling on parenting, local childcare options and access to specialist services for families.
  • Referrals to Child and family health services ranging from health screening e.g. HIV or Malaria services, maternal health services, access to education in health, diet and nutrition and youth support professionals. Health education and youth friendly services.
  • Helping young parents (street families) back into work with links to local support and training opportunities.
  • Linking with parents and local agencies to access services not offered by CPCs
  • The provision of information on alternative care arrangements for orphaned or abandoned children; Information and advice on legal services and government expectations and support regarding adoption, fostering, guardianship and family based care.
  • Support for parents with children with special needs and disabilities, special educational and/or emotional needs.
  • Offering flexible and quality services and support to children and families on a daily basis (with service access evenings and weekends). Buying medicines and access to emergency services during evening and weekends.  
  • Each centre will hold a list of all registered Charitable Children’s Institutions (CCIs) in its area and that of registered/approved foster careers (for emergency use only).
  • Drop in sessions offering support to foster careers and to prospective adopters.
  • To build the capacity of parents and the community on the awareness of child rights, drugs and substance abuse
  • To create awareness of child rights.


The Department operates CPCs in Malindi, Nakuru, and Garissa. The ones yet to be operationalized are in Siaya and Kakamega.




The Presidential Secondary School Bursary (PSSB) for the orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) from poor families in Secondary Schools is administered by the OVC Secretariat as a complementary service to the CT-OVC Programme. The aim of the bursary scheme is to enhance secondary school enrolment, attendance and completion by the Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya.

This PSSB Scheme was started in 2013/2014 Financial Year to support the OVC in Secondary Schools. This is a Government contribution towards complying with the legal requirement as stipulated in the Children’s Act 2001 Section 7(1), and as a complementary service to the CT-OVC Programme.


  • To increase the number of Orphans and Vulnerable Children enrolment, retained and transiting from secondary schools.


  • To increase secondary school enrolment and retention;
  • To increase the number of OVC who have completed secondary education (Form IV);
  • To build the capacity of the OVC to become self-reliant.


  • The beneficiary must be enrolled in a secondary school;
  • The beneficiary must be under 18 years of age at entry point into the bursary Scheme;
  • He/she must be an Orphan / Vulnerable Child from  a very poor household;
  • He/she must have been a resident in the target Location within the Constituency in the last one (1) year preceding the application.


  • In relation to the students in Boarding Schools, the PSSBS will cater for a maximum of Kshs.30,000, whereas the students in Day Schools will receive a maximum of Kshs.15,000.  The Parent/Guardian is expected to cater for any amount above that.
  • However this scheme does not cater for students in Private Secondary Schools.
  • [The above guideline is in line with the Ministry of Education Kenya Gazette Vol. CXVII No. 23 (10th March, 2015.) for Day Schools.]


  • For a student to be selected for the bursary award, the following steps are followed:
  • Awareness creation at  the Location/Sub Location level about the bursary;
  • During awareness creation, community members are informed of where to get application forms;
  • Dully filled applications are returned to the Sub-County Children’s offices (SCCO) (with the required attachments);
  • Application forms are Registered and Sorted by the SCCO;
  • These forms are Analysed and subjected to Score Ranking;
  • The approval of the list of beneficiaries is done by the local Constituency Social Assistance Committee (CSAC).
  • The ssuccessful candidates are thereby awarded the bursary.
  • Each constituency is expected to support a minimum of 45 needy students who are either in Day Schools or Boarding Schools.


  • The Approved List and CSAC Minutes are forwarded to the County Coordinator for Children’s Services who processes the payments through the District Treasuries.
  • The Sub-County Children’s Office is thereafter charged with getting the receipts of payments from the schools to ensure accountability.

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